Psicología

Mejor habla con tus niños

Posted on Actualizado enn


Dejarán de escucharte, aprovecha hoy.

Es muy probable que después de los 12 años dejes de ser el “ser perfecto” para tus hijos, ese que amaban y respetaban incluso después de unas nalgadas. Eso podría cambiar en la adolescencia, si hoy tienes hijos de 0 a 12 años, aprende a escucharlos, porque extrañarás esa atención al 100% que sólo en esa edad prestan. Es necesario sepan que tú los escuchas, la mayor queja que tiene un niño es que nunca son escuchados, y en la adolescencia será importante haberlos escuchados, conocer sus sentimientos hacia ti y hacia ellos mismos. Recuerda que escuchar es un arte, no es lo mismo oír que escuchar, la escucha es con todos tus sentidos.

Ese gesto también es amenazante, mamá o papá, así que baja un poco las revoluciones, se que es extraordinariamente difícil pero lo puedes lograr, al final tus hijos confiarán plenamente en tí porque les permitiste poder desahogarse con alguien que los ama.

Referencia

Atención Psicológica Alpha Y Omega

Nigri Draókos
Psicofilosofía Urbana (c)1980

Copyright 1980 JoeAbbis ICP

Will I Ever Be the Same After Surviving Abuse?

Posted on Actualizado enn


Overcome Abused

overcomeabuse

Triggers. Flashbacks. Nightmares. Hyperventilating. Extreme Anxiety. PTSD. Avoiding places, situations, people. Sobbing. Becoming void of emotion. Depression. Fatigue. Sleeping too much or not sleeping enough. Self-doubt. Hyper vigilance. Eating disorders. Panic. Detachment. Suicidal thoughts/behavior. Anger. Hate. All of these are common effects of experiencing trauma. You are not alone in this. There isn’t “something wrong with you”. You are not broken. You CAN and WILL overcome these things. After all, you have already survived 100% of everything in your life so far. Chances are, you can survive this as well.

All of these things have weighed heavily on my mind over the long weekend. I was officially diagnosed with PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) last Wednesday, so I’ve been trying to wrap my mind around it. The more I reflect on the symptoms that come from abuse, the more it breaks my heart that as abuse victims we have experienced enough pain…

Ver la entrada original 2.267 palabras más

Chronic stress (PTSD)

Posted on Actualizado enn


Chronic stress increases level of a protein that decreases availability of mood-regulating chemical

September 13, 2016 by Toni Baker

http://jagwire.augusta.edu/archives/37059

One-way chronic stress appears to cause depression is by increasing levels of a protein in the brain that decreases the availability of an important chemical that regulates our mood, scientists report.

They have found elevated levels of transglutaminase 2, or TG2, in the brains of mice experiencing chronic stress – an animal model of depression – as well as the prefrontal cortex of depressed people who committed suicide.

High TG2 levels in the mouse translated to atrophy of neurons, depression-like symptoms and reduced levels of TrkB, the receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor, a brain-nourishing molecule that also aids connectivity, said Dr. Anilkumar Pillai, neuroscientist in the Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University.

When scientists overexpressed TrkB, it relieved the depression-like symptoms in their animal model. “If you don’t have enough BDNF, then all the serotonin in the world won’t help,” said Pillai, corresponding author of the study in the Nature Journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Likewise, when they directly reduced TG2 levels using a drug or a viral vector, more BDNF signaling occurred and depressive symptoms abated, said Pillai, who suspects that the protein may be a powerful new target in the fight against depression.

They found TG2 levels increased in their animal model following administration of stress hormones and after several weeks of actual stress that mimics the lives of chronically stressed individuals. Both produced classic depressive behavior and increased TG2 levels in the prefrontal cortex, a region involved in complex thoughts, decision-making as well as mood and personality expression.

Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter in the brain involved in many functions, including mood regulation. Serotonin levels in a depressed patient’s blood should be high because serotonin signaling in the brain is low, Pillai said. Blood levels can be used to help diagnose the condition that affects about 350 million people worldwide and is the leading cause of disability, according to the World Health Organization. Many cell types make serotonin. Interestingly, the vast majority of serotonin is made in the gut, but neurons do make some of their own, Pillai said.

Astrocytes make BDNF, whose levels are also low in depression. Although just how the two work together is an unfolding mystery. In this study, Pillai and his team further linked them by showing that treatment that increases serotonin availability – as most antidepressants do – also increased levels of the BDNF receptor thru the action of RAC1. TG2 converts serotonin to RAC1, a protein that helps rejuvenate the BDNF receptor, TrkB.

Now the MCG scientists have shown that in depression a healthy balance of all these is upset, as elevated TG2 makes less serotonin available, leaving insufficient levels to enable proper communication between neurons. The brain also is more vulnerable as the increased level of activated RAC1 is inexplicably degraded, which leads to less instead of more BDNF signaling.

“Increased amounts of TG2 will eventually lead to decreased levels of RAC1, and BDNF signaling is just not happening,” Pillai said.

Next steps include looking for other drugs that lower TG2 levels. For the study, researchers used cysteamine, whose clinical uses today include treatment of a rare genetic condition in which a buildup of crystals can cause kidney failure. Unfortunately, the drug creates an odor that has patients bathing multiple times daily. They also want to directly measure serotonin levels following treatment, although Pillai notes that increased BNDF signaling should be significant to alleviate symptoms.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Assistant Research Scientist Dr. Chirayu D. Pandya is the study’s first author.

Anilkumar Pillai Chirayu Pandya mcgfeed Medical College of GeorgiaNational Institutes of Health Psychiatry and Health Behavior

Nigri Draókos
Psicofilosofía Urbana (c)1980
Copyright 1980 JoeAbbis ICP

How Do Our Brains Process Another Person’s Gaze?

Posted on Actualizado enn


How do we know when someone is looking at us? originally appeared on Quorathe knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights.

Answer by Paul King, Computational Neuroscientist, on Quora.

There are several things going on when you see someone looking at you, all of which happen very quickly.

This applies to actually seeing someone looking at you, not “sensing it” from behind or in the periphery.

Primates (including humans) are unique in the degree to which the eyeball can move around in the eye socket. This allows visual attention to be shifted quickly without physically moving the head.

Primates and certain other mammals can tell when another animal is looking at them, but humans are particularly good at doing this from a distance. In fact, humans have the added ability to be able to tell where someone is looking, even when it is not at them.

It is easy to see why this skill confers an evolutionary advantage: By being able to do this, you can essentially “read out” the location of another animal’s attention. If you are a social animal, and the one looking at you is a superior, you’d better behave. Or if it is an inferior, you are being challenged and need to respond so you don’t lose your place in the status hierarchy. For humans, knowing where another human is looking allows you to read their mind regarding what they are thinking about. This is invaluable when trying to learn language, since it allows you to pair particular words with particular objects in the environment. Pointing is also effective for this.

So, how do we do it?

Detecting the direction of gaze has to do with noticing the relative location of the dark spot of the eye (the pupil and iris) in the context of the whites of the eye. The differential size and location of the white region shows where the eye is pointed. And if the pupil is exactly in the middle with equal white regions on each side, then the eyes are looking at you. We can see this from across the room. Head direction also provides a cue, which is primarily determined by where the region of the two eyes and the nose are relative to oval face region, with hair as another reference marker. When the head is turned, the brain has to do some geometry to determine gaze direction from both head angle and relative eye angle.

Figure: Ratio of dark to light region of eye reveals direction of gaze. Bottom row: Location of facial features relative to head reveals head orientation. The visual system combines head orientation and eye orientation to calculate direction of gaze.

There is an additional effect that happens when “eyes meet”. When you look at someone and they look back, you have the feeling that your gaze was met. This can feel uncomfortable, and the person who was “caught” often quickly looks away. This effect is caused by a feedback loop. The second person to make eye contact sees immediately that the first person is looking at them. The first person realizes they were “discovered” and responds often according to perceived relative status or confidence. There is also the mutual knowing that eyes met, which becomes a shared event establishing a transient relationship.

The meeting of gaze helps people recognize each other. You may think you recognize someone, but if they seem to think they recognize you too by not looking away, then the odds are greater that you are both correct. The visual systems of both individuals thus collaborate to establish mutual recognition. This happens quickly and subconsciously, allowing the social exchange to move forward toward acknowledging each other. If one person doesn’t acknowledge back, it becomes an awkward case of mistaken identity.

Public speakers use the illusion of eye contact to create emotional intimacy with the audience. When people learn public speaking, they are told to glance around the room as they talk. This creates the illusion of intermittent eye contact with as many people in the room as possible, which allows the audience to feel that the speaker is talking to them personally, creating a feeling of intimacy with the speaker.

When TV newscasters deliver the news, they want the audience to have the impression they are talking to them. To accomplish this, they talk to the camera lens as if it was a person. In movies, actors avoid looking at the camera so that the audience never experiences mutual eye contact with them, preserving the feeling that the viewer is invisible. To look at the camera is called “breaking the fourth wall.”

This question originally appeared on Quora. – the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. More questions:

Coaching – Gestal

Posted on Actualizado enn


De acuerdo con la International Coach Federation  “El coaching profesional es un proceso de acompañamiento reflexivo y creativo con clientes que les inspira a maximizar su potencial personal y profesional.

Se considera que existe una relación de coaching profesional cuando en el coaching se establece un acuerdo (incluidos los contratos) que define las responsabilidades de cada parte.

El proceso de coaching tradicional propuesto por LA  ICF brinda los siguientes beneficios.

Beneficios para la persona:

Desarrollar nuestras capacidades y fortalezas.

Ganar en eficiencia y disfrutar más las cosas.

Tomar decisiones con conciencia, conocimiento, argumentos y valores.

Confianza en nosotros mismos.

Arriesgar por lo que queremos.

Beneficios para la organización:

Consolidar con rapidez y eficacia nuevas promociones o cambios de asignación.

Potenciar la fidelización del talento interno.

Integrar metodología que multiplica las capacidades de las personas.

Innovar en procesos o modelos de gestión.

Potenciar resultados de negocio.

En el proceso de  coaching  se debe trabajar con personas que no presenten algún problema de salud mental o psicopatológica.  Los candidatos al proceso de coaching son personas que cuenten con los recursos personales para  lograr sus objetivos, pero que hasta el momento no han encontrado la manera de desarrollar todo su potencial.

Como se ha mencionado, el coaching es un proceso que se enfoca en el  crecimiento o en el desarrollo personal, buscando construir las soluciones necesarias para alcanzar sus metas.

El coaching Gestalt se distingue por su énfasis en los procesos relacionales centrados en el presente, el uso del Awareness del coach como herramienta en  el proceso de cambio.  En el enfoque de Coaching Gestalt además de ayudar al cliente a lograr sus objetivos, busca favorecer nuevos aprendizajes, expresiones emocionales  genuinas y  cambio de actitudes.

El coach Gestalt está entrenado para promover el darse cuenta del coachee al enfocarse en el aquí y ahora. La meta de proceso es que  el coachee se enfoque en sus objetivos presentes sin olvidar la experiencia emocional que emerge en su búsqueda.

El darse cuenta es fundamental para complementar el cumplimiento de objetivos y metas de vida del coachee.  

El coach Gestalt promueve las siguientes habilidades en el coachee para la favorecer un cambio nutricio en la búsqueda de una vida saludable.

Ampliación de conciencia del cliente.

Activación emocional, dialogo existencial, cuestionamiento de las limitaciones existenciales, descubrimiento de miedos irracionales, fortalecimiento del autoapoyo, cumplimiento de metas  y objetivos.

El Coaching Gestalt ha sido desarrollado  por los teóricos del Instituto Gestalt de Cleveland, principalmente por Sonia Nevis. Con base en la propuesta de Coaching Gestalt del instituto de Cleveland  podemos resumir las siguientes habilidades principales de un coach Gestalt:

Habilidad para estar presente y enfocado en el proceso con la confianza organísmica  en la proceso de actualización que sigue el cliente.

Sensibilidad  propia y hacia  las demás personas.

Lograr contactar con sus propias reacciones emocionales y las de los demás.

Habilidad para especificar, clarificar y encauzar los asuntos de los clientes.

Capacidad para promover el darse cuenta que le permita al cliente diferenciar entre sus deseos y necesidades.

Habilidad para identificar las potencialidades del cliente para ayudarlo a resolver sus problemas en el aquí y ahora.

Habilidad para describir fenomenológicamente la experiencia relacional con el cliente.

Apreciar el significado de la experiencia del campo relacional.

Ser consiente de los procesos estéticos, transcendentes, y creativos en el proceso de coaching Gestalt.

Podemos concluir s concluir que la Gestalt promueve una actitud basada en la presencia, el contacto emocional, el darse cuenta, la conciencia y el compromiso existencial. Al integrarse la Psicoterapia Gestalt y el Coaching se  mantienen los mismos valores humanistas pero integrando la metodología de acompañamiento centrada en el cambio. Desde este enfoque se considera a las personas como seres integrales  con una tendencia a seguir desarrollándose de manera ecológica e integral.

El Coaching Gestalt emerge de la fusión del Coaching y la Gestalt, contemplando en este proceso la aceptación del pasado, la construcción del futuro y la re-significación de ambos experiencias con base en la ampliación de conciencia. Sin olvidar que la prioridad de este enfoque es el presente: aquí y ahora, creando procesos de facilitación del  cambio buscando alcanzar la mayor profundidad, congruencia y eficacia en el coachee.

Por Francisco Javier Díaz Calderón

9 julio 2016

The Importance of Employee Mental Health

Posted on Actualizado enn


Por RICK Nauert PhD.
Senior Editor de Noticias
Comentado por John M. Grohol, doctor en Psicología
el 27 de agosto 2009

Aunque el activo más valioso para muchas empresas es la fuerza de trabajo, los líderes a menudo no reconocen las consecuencias de la conducta gerencial irrespetuosa. Cuando un empleado cree que ha sido tratado injustamente, las nuevas investigaciones muestran que el empleado no puede perdonar y olvidar.

Conductas tales como ridiculizar empleados en su elección de almuerzo, vestimenta, o hábitos, pueden tener efectos de largo alcance sobre la salud mental de los empleados. La investigación publicada en la Revista de Estudios de Administración (Journal of Management Studies) realiza un seguimiento del proceso de espiral descendente que se activa cuando una persona experimenta que los empleados perciben injusticias en el trabajo.

Estos eventos crean un importante factor estresante que puede conducir potencialmente al bienestar psicológico dañado y el agotamiento emocional extremo, que afecta directamente a la capacidad de un trabajador para hacer frente a las demandas de carga de trabajo y las expectativas relacionadas con el rendimiento. Estos individuos también son propensos a sentirse señalados dentro de su ambiente de trabajo y pueden comenzar a sentirse descontentos con sus puestos de trabajo en su conjunto, lo que lleva a un cambio en las actitudes y comportamientos relacionados con el trabajo.

Esto a su vez conduce a un agotamiento general en su sentido de compromiso con la organización, y en el peor de los casos, un mayor riesgo de interrupción voluntaria y alta rotación dentro de las organizaciones.

APA Reference Nauert, R. (2009).
The Importance of Employee Mental Health.
 Psych Central. Retrieved on December 25, 2013

http://psychcentral.com/news/2009/08/27/the-importance-of-employee-mental-health/8008.html

PTSD and the Military

Posted on Actualizado enn


A U.S. soldier (R) of 1st Squadron, 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment, cries during a memorial service for three fellow soldiers who were killed during clashes last March 25 and April 7, at a military camp in Baghdad April 16, 2008. REUTERS/Erik de Castro (IRAQ)
A U.S. soldier (R) of 1st Squadron, 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment, cries during a memorial service for three fellow soldiers who were killed during clashes last March 25 and April 7, at a military camp in Baghdad April 16, 2008. REUTERS/Erik de Castro (IRAQ)

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder can occur following a life-threatening event like military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults like rape. Most survivors of trauma return to normal given a little time. However, some people have stress reactions that don’t go away on their own, or may even get worse over time. These individuals may develop PTSD. People who suffer from PTSD often suffer from nightmares, flashbacks, difficulty sleeping, and feeling emotionally numb.

These symptoms can significantly impair a person’s daily life.PTSD is marked by clear physical and psychological symptoms. It often has symptoms like depression, substance abuse, problems of memory and cognition, and other physical and mental health problems. The disorder is also associated with difficulties in social or family life, including occupational instability, marital problems, family discord, and difficulties in parenting.

Woman PTSD 0If you are suffering from PTSD, or know someone who is, the following list of resources and information will help you find help in dealing with PTSD and related conditions. Each VA medical center has PTSD specialists who provide treatment for Veterans with PTSD. Plus, the VA provides nearly 200 specialized PTSD treatment programs.

A referral is usually needed to access the specialty programs. You can use this VA PTSD Program Locator to see if there is a specialized program near you.

NOTE: If you are in crisis dial 911 or 800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255).

Military.com

Nigri Draókos
Psicofilosofía Urbana (c)1980
Copyright 1980 JoeAbbis ICP

Memoirs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Posted on Actualizado enn


How neurotypicals think triggers work.

I had a traumatic experience but I’m 100% fine and never think about it unless I see a neurotypical-approved trigger then flashbacks occur and have a horrible panic attack.

How triggers actually work.

I had a traumatic experience and the long-time effects of trauma influence my life every day seriously, no one forgets about a traumatic experience (unless they repress those memories completely). A trigger is something that makes those memories resurface. Triggers can be anything; words, phrases, smells, symbols, colors, things that seem ridiculous to you but to me have a connection to my traumatic experience that I am not obligated to explain just because you think I’m “tossing the word trigger around like it’s nothing”.

Reactions to triggers can range from slight discomfort to severe panic attacks; none of these reactions are less valid because they’re not bad enough. My general mental health influences how I respond to a trigger. The same trigger might not bother me on a good day but make me suffer from paranoia and anxiety on a bad day. It is still always a trigger.

Veterans are not the only ones suffering from PTSD “war” is not the only real trigger. Mocking triggers (no matter how silly they seem to you) means mocking and disrespecting everyone who had a traumatic experience and asks people to tag triggers because they don’t want the memories to resurface more than they already do anyway you’re not my therapist. You have no say in what triggers me and how I am supposed to deal with that.

So if I ask people to tag penguins, but don’t feel comfortable telling everyone that the reason for this is that they are my abuser’s favorite animals which they often talked about (when they weren’t hitting me, locking me up and letting me starve, and telling me I deserve it), you have absolutely no right to make fun of that, bye.

Anonymous.

Nigri Draókos
Psicofilosofía Urbana (c)1980
Copyright 1980 JoeAbbis ICP